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Recurrent dislocation of the shoulder is a common clinical condition. Most cases are traumatic in aetiology with a few cases related to epileptic or electrical induced seizure and a tiny proportion related to shoulder dysplasia and ligamentous laxity. There are often classified according to 

I Traumatic structural: a) acute  b) persistent  c) recurrent
II Atraumatic structural   a) recurrent
III Habitual non-structural   a) recurrent  b) persistent.

The majority of dislocations are anterior.
Inferior dislocation or subluxation can follow effusion or haemarthrosis
Posterior dislocation is most commonly seen following epileptic fits.

The clinical diagnosis is relatively straightforward. As many episodes are recurrent, patients often involve methods of reducing the distal located shoulder themselves prior to presentation. Posteriorly dislocations should be suspected following epileptic seizure.
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The management decision is usually also relatively simple and most patients seek surgical assistance in preventing subsequent dislocations. Surgical options centre on the capsular tightening procedure which can be open or arthroscopic. Imaging is frequently requested to determine whether surgery to the anterior glenoid margin is also necessary in addition to capsular tightening. Surgery is indicated where there is a significant bony injury (bony Bankart lesion) and in many cases where the injury is confined to the anteroinferior labrum (soft tissue Bankart lesion).
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The glenoid is an inherently unstable joint with the bony glenoid on its own providing relatively poor support for the humeral head. The depth of the joint is increased significantly by the presence of a fibrocartilaginous rim called the glenoid labrum. In most individuals, the labrum completely surrounds the glenoid. It is triangular in cross section with a gently carved inner surface to accommodate the spherical humeral head. Injuries to the glenoid labrum occur in several distinct clinical circumstances, the most common of these is shoulder dislocation when significant trauma causes the humeral head to migrate, usually anteriorly but occasionally posteriorly. This results in an impaction injury of the humeral head against the labrum. In many cases the labrum is torn and displaced from its normal location either alone or in combination with an attached bone or cartilage fragment. The injury is called a Bankhart lesion. If the labrum is displaced on its own this is called a soft tissue Bankhart, a bony Bankhart is the term used when a fragment of the bony glenoid is also attached and a GLAD lesion when the labrum is attached to a fragment of articular cartilage.
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Injuries to the anterior and more particularly the anteroinferior glenoid most commonly occur close to the attachment of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. Typically the anteroferior labrum with attached anterior limb of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGL) is pulled from its insertion and displaced laterally. A number of variants of this injury occur. If the periosteum attaching the anterior margin of the labrum remains attached the lesion is called a Perthe’s lesion. If a small fragment of articular cartilage is also attached the lesion is called a GLAD lesion (glenoid labrum articular defect). If the labrum is displaced medially it is termed an ALPSA (anterior labrum periosteal sleeve avulsion). In these instances a blood supply to the labrum is preserved and it may enlarge resulting in a glenoid labrum ovoid mass (GLOM). The clinical significance of these injury variants is extremely doubtful and in most instances the radiologist merely has to be concerned as to whether there is a normal relationship between the antero inferior labrum and underlying glenoid.